PubMed MEDLINE is an excellent free source of journal article citations and abstracts for veterinarians and others seeking information on veterinary medicine and animal health topics.
This page provides guidelines for searching in PubMed, which are also available in the printable brochure, PubMed MEDLINE Searching: Veterinary Medicine.
Assistance and Training
In addition to the information found on this page, there are several other valuable resources for learning to search in and use PubMed. You can:
PubMed Provides . . .
Veterinary Journal Coverage
Go to Journals in NCBI Databases to see a list of the approximately 180 important veterinary journals that are indexed for PubMed. Additional animal-related articles can also be found in non-veterinary journals.
Note: Some clinical and international veterinary journals are NOT indexed, such as, Advances in Veterinary Dermatology, Equine Veterinary Education, Veterinary Economics, and Veterinary Medicine. To check which journals are indexed, click on Journals Database on the PubMed home page.
Guidelines for Searching
Subjects -- Free Text Keywords
Single AND Relationship between subject keywords or phrases
Enter keywords/search terms in any order; PubMed will automatically supply the AND connectors; 2-3 separate search elements are usually sufficient, e.g., [disease], [species], [other aspect, such as diagnosis, treatment, etc].
|fleas dogs insecticides||[PubMed searches as: fleas AND dogs AND insecticides]|
|tibia osteotomy dogs|
|monkeypox prairie dogs|
|west nile virus diagnosis horses|
|leptospir* diagnosis dogs||[Truncation for word variations]|
|linkage retina dogs cornell||[Author’s institutional affiliation]|
|coronavirus animal||[Include all animal species]|
|parvovirus review||[Add “review” or use Limits menu]|
|johne’s disease cattle||[PubMed also searches synonyms like paratuberculosis; click Details|
|“von willebrand” cryoprecipitate dogs||[Use double quotes for adjacency or exact phrase word order]|
|foot and mouth disease occurrence||[Automatic mapping will search as a phrase and MeSH heading]|
Multiple AND/OR Relationships between subject keywords or phrases using Boolean Connectors
Enter AND, OR, NOT in UPPER CASE; use parenthesis to group similar topics or synonyms together.
|dirofilariasis OR dirofilaria OR heartworm||[Use synonyms to broaden a topic]|
|(pseudorabies OR aujeszky*) AND swine||[See “standardized” species terms]|
MeSH headings are used to provide standardized subject indexing for articles in MEDLINE. They can increase the consistency of search results by minimizing synonym and other variations in keywords or text terms in common usage. View the MeSH headings applied to each article from the Citation format. For veterinary topics, use the same approach as text word searching. Follow prompts and click appropriate buttons.
Enter last name first and/or second initials, no punctuation.
|kollias gv||[Don’t use Jr. or III designations]|
|center sa [au]||[Use tag for common names]|
|morgan* [au]||[Use truncation & tag if initials are not known]|
|burton-wurster n||[Enter names with hyphen]|
|hackett rp ainsworth dm||[For papers written by both authors together; AND is assumed]|
|ducharme ng OR nixon aj||[Enter OR for articles by either or both authors]|
Enter full title or MEDLINE abbreviation, or use the Journals Database accessed from the PubMed home page.
|journal of the american veterinary medical association||am j vet res|
|thrombocytopenia “blood” [ta] dogs 2004 (Put single word journal titles in double quotes with tag.)|
|“gene therapy” [ta] (Use double quotes & tag for journal titles confused with subjects.)|
Enter in any sequence; AND connector is assumed, AND/OR connectors must be entered.
todhunter rj osteoarthritis dogs 2003
estrus horses equine vet j
sarcoid horses vet clin north am equine practice review
farnum ce chondrocyte*
atopic dermatitis dogs vet dermatol olivry t [au]
Animal Species and Groups
There are several ways to limit your search to animal species or groups, listed here.
diabetes AND (dogs OR cats)
Veterinary [sb]cardiomyopathy cats
Standardized Indexing Terms for Species and Animal Groups
Each index term listed below includes the accompanying topics:
|amphibia||All types of amphibians, including frogs and salamanders|
|animal||Any non-human animal.|
|birds||All types of birds, including poultry, raptors, psittacines.|
|carnivora||Bears, cats, ferrets, foxes, otters, lions, raccoons, wolves, etc.|
|cattle||Cow, cows, bovine, calf, calves, heifer.|
|cats||Cat, cats, feline, kitten, kittens, queen.|
|cetacea||Dolphins, porpoises, whales, etc.|
|dogs||Dog, dogs, canine, puppy, puppies, bitch.|
|goats||Goat, goats, caprine, kid, kids, etc.|
|guinea pigs||Guinea pig, guinea pigs, cavia, cavies.|
|fishes||All types of fish, including salmon, trout.|
|hamsters||Hamster, hamsters, cricetus, etc.|
|horses||Horse, horses, equine, stallion, mare,mares, foal, foals, filly, gelding.|
|human||Homo sapiens, man (male or female), humans.|
|insectivora||Hedgehogs, moles, shrews.|
|mice||Mice, mouse, all genetic types of mice (nude, inbred strains)|
|poultry||Incl. chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys.|
|primates||Human and non-human primates since 2004. For non-human primates, enter each type (lemur, colobus, gorilla, etc.)|
|psittacines||Parakeets, cockatiels, parrots, etc.|
|rabbits||Rabbit, rabbits, bunnies.|
|rodentia||All types of rodents, incl. rats, mice, squirrels, woodchucks.|
|ratites||Emus, ostriches, rheas.|
|rats||Rat, rats, all genetic types of rats incl. inbred strains|
|reptiles||All types including alligators, lizards, snakes.|
|ruminants||All types including buffalo, camels, cattle, deer, sheep.|
|sheep||Sheep, ovine, ewe, etc.|
|swine||Pig, pigs, swine, porcine, piglet, piglets, boar, boars, sow, sows, etc.|
|Animals, domestic||Domesticated species, incl. pets, dogs, cats, horses, livestock|
|Animals, laboratory||Typical lab animals, incl. rats, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, etc. as a group.|
|Animals, wild||Feral, wild or non-domesticated animals|
|Animals, zoo||Animals in zoos|